/boot/vmlinuz-x.xx.x-xx-arch the typical location and name of the Linux kernel.
/dev/sda - first SATA hard drive
/dev/null - used when you want to send output into oblivion
/etc/aliases - file containing aliases used various MTAs (mail transport agents). After updating this file, it is necessary to run the newaliases utility for the changes to be considered.
/etc/bashrc - system-wide default functions and aliases for the bash shell
/etc/modules - kernel modules to load at boot time
/etc/crontab - shell script to run different commands periodically (hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, etc.)
/etc/exports - specifies hosts to which file systems can be exported using NFS. Man exports contains information on how to set up this file for remote users.
/etc/fstab - contains information on partitions and filesystems used by system to mount different partitions and devices on the directory tree
/etc/hostname - stores the name of the host computer
/etc/hosts - contains a list of host names and absolute IP addresses.
/etc/hosts.allow - hosts allowed (libwrap0, also known as TCP wrappers or TCPD or LOG_TCP.)
/etc/hosts.deny - hosts forbidden (libwrap0, also known as TCP wrappers or TCPD or LOG_TCP.)
/etc/group - similar to /etc/passwd but for groups
/etc/inetd.conf - configures the inetd daemon to tell it what TCP/IP services to provide (which daemons to load at boot time). A good start to securing a Linux box is to turn off these services unless they are necessary.
/etc/inittab - runs different programs and processes on startup. This is typically the program which is responsible for, among other things, setting the default runlevel, running the rc.sysinit script contained in /etc/rc.d, setting up virtual login terminals, bringing down the system in an orderly fashion in response to [Ctrl][Alt][Del], running the rc script in /etc/rc.d, and running xdm for a graphical login prompt (only if the default runlevel is set for a graphical login).
/etc/issue - pre-login message. The relevant lines should be commented out (or changed) in these scripts if a custom pre-login message is desired.
/etc/motd - message of the day file
/etc/mtab - shows currently mounted devices and partitions and their status
/etc/passwd - contains information concerning users who are registered to use the system.
/etc/shadow - contains hashes of the users passwords.
/etc/profile - sets system-wide defaults for bash shell. It is this file in Slackware that sets up the DIR_COLORS environment variable for the color ls command. Also sets up other system-wide environment variables.
/etc/resolv.conf - contains a list of domain name servers used by the local machine
/proc/cpuinfo - cpu information
/proc/filesystems - prints filesystems currently in use
/proc/interrupts - prints interrupts currently in use
/proc/ioports - contains a list of the i/o addresses used by various devices connected to the computer
/proc/kcore - interface for accessing kernel memory, and is in the form of an ELF core file that can be navigated with GDB..
/proc/version - prints Linux version and other info
/var/log/messages - used by syslog daemon to store kernel boot-time messages
/var/log/lastlog - used by system to store information about last boot
/var/log/wtmp - contains binary data indicating login times and duration for each user on system